Although we are worshipping once again beneath our steeple,
it will be awhile longer before congregational singing
is once again part of our Sunday service.
Until such time, continue to visit this page for a weekly hymn-based reflection.
July 5, 2020
It isn’t often that we meet a husband and wife hymn-writing team, but such a pair is behind this Sunday’s hymn. They also have connections to our region of the country.
The hymn is “God will take care of you.” It was selected to support this week’s scripture text, 1 Peter 5:5-7 (see sidebar).
Let’s begin with a look at the hymn’s background. It was written in 1904 by Civilla Martin and the music composed by her husband, Walter Stillman Martin. The Martins were among those evangelists who traveled to various venues across the country to conduct preaching seminars and revivals – much like the renowned D.L. Moody and his music partner Ira D. Sankey.
When “God will take care of you” came into being, the Martins were guests at the Practical Bible Training School in Lestershire, New York. Hymnologist Kenneth Osbeck describes the hymn’s origin:
It was composed while the Martins were spending several weeks as guests at the Practical Bible Training School at Lestershire, New York, where Mr. Martin was involved in helping the president of the school, John A. Davis, prepare a songbook. The Reverend W. Stillman Martin, a well-known Baptist evangelist, was invited to preach at a church some distance from the Bible school. That Sunday morning, Mrs. Martin became suddenly ill, making it impossible for her to accompany her husband to his speaking engagement. Mr. Martin seriously considered cancelling his speaking assignment, since it would be needful for him to be gone from her for a considerable time. Just then, however, their young son spoke up and said, "Father, don’t you think that if God wants you to preach today, He will take care of Mother while you are away?"
It was their son’s statement that inspired Civilla to write the hymn, which, by the way, was her first. Mr. Martin kept his preaching engagement and returned to find his wife much improved and her first hymn ready to share with him. Civilla Martin described it in these words:
"God will take care of you" was written on Sunday afternoon while my husband went to a preaching appointment. When he returned, I gave the words to him. He immediately sat down to his little Bilhorn organ* and wrote the music. That evening, he and two of the teachers sang the completed song. It was then printed in the songbook he was compiling for the school.
By some estimates, the Martins wrote nearly 500 hymns. Besides “God will take care of you,” one that has stood the test of time is “The blood will never lose its power” (1912). This is believed to have inspired Andraé Crouch’s 1962 song of the same name.
Civilla Martin also wrote "His Eye Is on the Sparrow." (1905). This text was set to music not by her husband, but by the well-known gospel song composer Charles Gabriel (1856-1932), and made famous by Ethel Waters (1896-1977) in the play “The Member of the Wedding.”
Various settings of the text “God will take care of you” appear repeatedly in the body of Christian hymnody, particularly during the era in which the Martins lived. In addition to the Martins, Fanny Crosby (“Blessed Assurance”) and Frances Havergal (“Take my life and let it be”) are two such hymnwriters who were inspired by it. Its source is 1 Peter 5:7, a portion of the scripture text we will consider this week: “… casting all your anxieties on him, because he cares for you.” In the case of Civilla Martin’s hymn, if one sings all four stanzas and the refrain in between each, he will sing “God will take care of you” 16 times. Civilla clearly endeavored to ensure that the point of her hymn would find its way into the hearts and minds of all who would sing it.
Civilla Durfee Martin (1866-1948) was born in Nova Scotia, but lived the last 29 years of her life in Atlanta, Georgia. In 1891, she married a Congregational minister from Coventryvilee, New York named John F. Geddes. There is no information about their marriage or why it ended. Civilla taught school for a time before marrying Walter Stillman Martin and joining him in his evangelistic work. Due to frail health, she did not always accompany him on his travels, but partnered with him through their hymn-writing collaborations. All of their hymns were written specifically for revival meetings.
Walter Stillman Martin (1862-1935) attended Harvard University and was ordained a Baptist minister, although he and Civilla both joined the Disciples of Christ denomination at some point. In 1916, he became a professor of Bible studies at Atlantic Christian College in Wilson, North Carolina. Three years later, he and Civilla moved to Atlanta, Georgia. This served as the base from which he ran Bible conferences and revival meetings all across the country. After Martin’s death, Civilla joined Atlanta’s First Christian Church. Her remains are interred in West View Cemetery.
A recording of the hymn is available here. It is sung by the Antrim Mennonite Choir of Freeport, Ohio. Before listening, consider taking a few moments to reflect upon the text in quietness.
* Curious about the Bilhorn organ? Read and listen here.
1. Be not dismayed whate’er betide,
God will take care of you;
Beneath his wings of love abide,
God will take care of you.
God will take care of you,
Through ev'ry day,
O’er all the way;
He will take care of you,
God will take care of you.
2. Through days of toil when heart does fail,
God will take care of you;
When dangers fierce your path assail,
God will take care of you. [Refrain]
3. All you may need he will provide,
God will take care of you;
Nothing you ask will be denied,
God will take care of you. [Refrain]
4. No matter what may be the test,
God will take care of you;
Lean, weary one, upon his breast,
God will take care of you. [Refrain]
Worship Homework: Expanding Our Hymn Repertoire
Have you heard the expression, “when life hands you lemons, make lemonade”? During these days that congregational singing is restricted from our Sunday worship, why not take the opportunity to learn a few new hymns?
Every two or three weeks, a new hymn will be posted here for us to learn. It will include words, printed music direct from our hymnal, and an audio clip. The invitation presented to the congregation is to take time during the week to listen and sing along until you feel comfortable with each hymn. When we are able to sing again in worship, we will begin to incorporate the new hymns into the service.
Homework Assignment #1
The first hymn is “For your gift of God the Spirit.” The strong theological text is paired with a stirring hymn tune that begs to be sung out loud and strong. If it sounds familiar, it could be because our choir has sung the tune several times with the text, “Love divine, all loves excelling.”
This majestic tune, named BLAENWERN, was composed by a church musician by the name of William Penfro Rowlands (1860-1937). Rowlands was born and raised in Pembrokeshire, Wales. The tune’s name refers to a farm in Pembrokeshire where Rowlands spent a good deal of time during his youth.
The Psalter Hymnal Handbook (1988) offers the following sketch of Rowlands: “A church musician of many talents, Rowlands was a teacher in several schools. He composed hymn tunes and anthems and was conductor of the famous Morriston United Choral Society of southern Wales and precentor of the Tabernacle Congregational Church in Morriston. BLAENWERN gained its current popularity through Billy Graham crusades when it was sung to 'What a Friend We Have in Jesus.'"
As to the text, the Psalter Hymnal Handbook offers this: "Margaret Clarkson wrote this text about the work of the Holy Spirit during the summer of 1959 at the Severn River, Ontario, Canada. Requested by Stacey Woods, General Secretary of Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship in Canada and the United States, the text was first published in Anywhere Songs (IVCF songbook, 1960). Clarkson revised the text for use in IVCF's Hymns II in 1976 and made final revisions in 1984. If 'Veni, Creator Spiritus' is the classic prayer text to the Holy Spirit, 'For Your Gift' is the best teaching text on the Holy Spirit. Inspired by biblical passages about the work of the Spirit in creation, the Church, and our personal lives, this text reads like a study of the doctrine of the Holy Spirit. It is a splendid example of sung theology, which brings our heart's confession onto our lips."
Text and printed music are given below. Click here to listen. If, after you feel at home with the hymn, you would like to hear a somewhat more rousing rendition of the tune, listen to the recording labeled "Blaenwern (Love Divine, All Loves Excelling)" here. Do be aware that the hymn text in the second clip is different (Love divine, all loves excelling). Enjoy!
1. For your gift of God the Spirit,
pow'r to make our lives anew,
pledge of life and hope of glory,
Savior, we would worship you.
Crowning gift of resurrection
sent from your ascended throne,
fullness of the very Godhead,
come to make your life our own.
2. He, who in creation's dawning
brooded on the lifeless deep,
still across our nature's darkness
moves to wake our souls from sleep,
moves to stir, to draw, to quicken,
thrusts us through with sense of sin;
brings to birth and seals and fills us -
saving Advocate within.
3. He, himself the living Author,
wakes to life the sacred Word,
reads with us its holy pages
and reveals our risen Lord.
He it is who works within us,
teaching rebel hearts to pray,
he whose holy intercessions
rise for us both night and day.
4. He, the mighty God, in-dwells us;
his to strengthen, help, empow'r;
his to overcome the tempter,
ours to call in danger's hour.
In his strength we dare to battle
all the raging hosts of sin,
and by him alone we conquer
foes without and foes within.
5. Father, grant your Holy Spirit
in our hearts may rule today,
grieved not, quenched not, but unhindered,
work in us his sovereign way.
Fill us with your holy fullness,
God the Father, Spirit, Son;
in us, through us, then, forever,
shall your perfect will be done.
June 28, 2020
This week’s hymn reflection consists of three elements.
1) A link and music clip for the hymn that Brian referenced in last week’s sermon
2) Background information and music clip for this Sunday’s hymn
3) A renewed invitation to take the hymn homework challenge
Last Sunday, Brian referenced in his sermon Samuel Rutherford and his hymn, “The sands of time are sinking.” Rutherford’s personal history and the full text of the hymn are both inspiring reading. Spend a few minutes with both here. A recording of the hymn is available here.
Let us take a look now at this Sunday’s hymn: “O Master, let me walk with thee.” It is a favorite among church-goers of most mainstream denominations – what one might call a “heart song.” The pairing of Washington Gladden’s fervent prayer with the contemplative tune MARYTON was a marriage that quickly found its way into the hearts of congregants. According to hymnologist C. Michael Hawn, professor of sacred music at Perkins School of Theology, it is “one of the most significant devotional hymns of this era.”
Of Gladden’s 11 hymns, one other besides “O Master let me walk with thee” found a lasting place in church hymn repertoire: “Fairest Lord Jesus.”
At first glance, the text of “O Master, let me walk with thee” might suggest an author who is quiet and introspective. To the contrary, he appears to have been something of a mover and shaker. Once we consider the direction of his ministry, the text might take on a sense of urgency while giving us a glimpse into his struggle to live out the Gospel as he understood it.
Washington Gladden (1838-1918) was born into a farming family in Pottsgrove, Pennsylvania. He worked for a local newspaper before attending Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts. Later, he served as religious editor and acting general editor of the New York Independent and made a name for himself when he helped to expose the “Tweed Ring.” He later served a pastorate in Springfield, Massachusetts and, after that, at First Congregational Church in Columbus, Ohio. He is remembered as a Congregationalist minister, crusading journalist, author, frequent lecturer, and early advocate of the Social Gospel Movement. He wrote many influential tracts, as well as 40 books, among them an autobiography titled Recollections (1909). In his preaching, he is said to have “stressed the simple and direct nature of the Gospel as well as its practicality.” Outside of the pulpit, he worked for a variety of social justice causes, and advocated for cooperation between labor and management via the establishment of unions.
The Encyclopedia Britannica describes Gladden as one who “opposed both socialism and classical economic theory and sought to apply Christian law to social problems; some consider him the first American clergyman of note to approve of unionization.”
During his tenure as moderator of the National Council of Congregational Churches, he rejected a $100,000 gift from John D. Rockefeller to the denomination’s foreign missions program on the basis that it was tainted money.
“O Master, let me walk with thee” was published in 1879 in a magazine called Sunday Afternoon under the title “Walking with God.” The following year saw its first publication in a hymnal. The hymn’s original second stanza was omitted in that hymnal and rarely appeared in future publications. It reads:
O Master, let me walk with thee
Before the taunting Pharisee;
Help me to bear the sting of spite,
The hate of men who hide thy light.
The sore distrust of souls sincere
Who cannot read thy judgments clear,
The dullness of the multitude,
Who dimly guess that thou art good.
This stanza points to a weighty issue that Gladden faced. His advocacy for social justice resulted in some measure of hostility from the public. Dr. Hawn writes that, “This theme aroused opposition from those who felt the role of a minister was ‘to save souls, not to regulate business.’ Furthermore, he challenged the idea that the Bible was inerrant in matters of science and history. Hymnologist Albert Bailey notes that ‘he found his fellow-clergymen without courage to follow him, for heresy trials were beginning in the Congregational Church.’ In this context, the meaning of the excised stanza cited above makes sense.”
Perhaps Gladden’s alleged challenge of the Bible’s inerrancy is the reason the hymn was not included in Trinity Hymnal.
Dr. Hawn presents an interesting opinion in regard to the word “master” as used in the hymn, writing that “the more commonly used reference to Christ, ‘Lord’, indicates a relationship of a feudal noble to a vassal, while ‘Master’ perhaps implies more of a reciprocal respect between a teacher and disciple.”
The text itself, literally a prayer, consists of a series of intercessions or petitions. As you reflect upon the hymn, look for these petitions. All are service-oriented, as is this Sunday’s scripture passage (1 Peter 5:1-5; see sidebar). These petitions might be seen as a response to Peter’s exhortations.
The composer of the hymn tune is Henry Percy Smith. Smith was born in Malta in 1825 and died in England in 1898. He was an ordained priest in the Church of England, serving five churches throughout his lifetime. The tune MARYTON is thought to be the only tune he published.
Click here to listen to a recording of the hymn. It is sung by the congregation of First Methodist Church, Houston, Texas.
Continue below for a reminder of the suggested “homework assignment.”
O Master, Let Me Walk with Thee
1. O Master, let me walk with Thee
in lowly paths of service free;
tell me Thy secret; help me bear
the strain of toil, the fret of care.
2. Help me the slow of heart to move
by some clear, winning word of love;
teach me the wayward feet to stay,
and guide them in the homeward way.
3. Teach me Thy patience, still with Thee
in closer, dearer company,
in work that keeps faith sweet and strong,
in trust that triumphs over wrong.
4. In hope that sends a shining ray
far down the future's broad'ning way;
in peace that only Thou canst give,
with Thee, O Master, let me live.
June 21, 2020
Our hymn this Sunday is “Take up your cross, the Savior said.” Cathy Peake will sing on our behalf as we continue social distancing practices.
This strong text of exhortation and instruction is based on Mark 8:34-35: "And when he had called the people unto him with his disciples also, he said unto them, ‘Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's, the same shall save it.’" It speaks well to this Sunday’s scripture text, which is 1 Peter 4:12-19 (see sidebar). Bear this passage in mind as you reflect upon the hymn’s text (provided below).
Charles William Everest penned this poem in 1833 under the title, “Visions of Death.” It was published in two magazines – Episcopal Watchman in the United States and The Tract in the United Kingdom – before being paired with music and published in hymnals. Its first hymnal appearance was in Union Sabbath-School Hymns (1835). It was one of only two hymns by American authors to appear in the groundbreaking first edition of the English hymnal, Hymns Ancient and Modern (1861). Its selection was a recognition of the hymn’s great merit.
As it began appearing in hymnals, many text alterations were made, although it has not been clearly determined who was responsible for those alterations. It is a common practice among hymnal editors to adapt texts to better suit the language and sensibilities of an era or region, changing theological views, and other factors. The source believed to contain a version closest to the original – Biggs’ English Hymnology (1873) – is available only for purchase; therefore, a comparison of original to present version cannot be provided here.
Charles William Everest (1814-1877) was born in East Windsor, Connecticut, graduated from Trinity College in Hartford in 1838, and was ordained a priest in the Episcopal Church in 1842. He served a congregation in Hamden, Connecticut for 31 years, and was also an agent for the Society for the Increase of the Ministry. He published a collection of poems titled, Visions of Death and Other Poems in which “Take up your cross …” appeared. It was part of a set in that collection called “Fugitive Poems.” In addition to Vision of Death (1837), Everest published Babylon, a Poem (1838) and The Poets of Connecticut: With Biographical Sketches (1843). The latter is still available for purchase through Amazon.com.
Of Everest’s poems, “Take up your cross …” is the only one to be used as a hymn, but it has stood the test of time and retains a strong standing in the repertoire of Christian hymnody. Like a goodly number of hymns from the 19th century, Everest’s text focuses upon the importance of faithfulness and suffering as the paths to eternal life.
A recording of the hymn is available here. It sung to the tune O Waly, Waly. This is a traditional English folk tune which may be familiar to you as “The Gift of Love” or “The Water is Wide.”
Take Up Your Cross
Charles William Everest
"Take up your cross," the Savior said,
"if you would my disciple be;
take up your cross with willing heart,
and humbly follow after me."
Take up your cross; let not its weight
fill your weak soul with vain alarm;
Christ’s strength shall bear your spirit up,
and brace your heart and nerve your arm.
Take up your cross; heed not the shame,
and let your foolish pride be still;
the Lord for you accepted death
upon a cross, on Calv'ry's hill.
Take up your cross, then, in His strength,
and calmly ev’ry danger brave;
it guides you to abundant life
and leads to victory o'er the grave.
Take up your cross, and follow on,
nor think till death to lay it down;
for only he who bears the cross
may hope to wear the glorious crown.
June 14, 2020
Our hymn this Sunday is “O breath of life, come sweeping through us.” Cyndi Eckley will be singing it for us as we continue social distancing practices.
The hymn was written by Elizabeth Ann "Bessie" Porter Head (1850-1936). Scant information is available about Bessie, but what is known paints a picture of a vibrant, energetic woman who was a devoted witness to the Gospel. She was the youngest daughter of Tobias Porter, manager of a flour mill in Belfast, Ireland. She grew up to become a missionary. The first documented evidence of her missionary work is of her election in 1894 to serve as secretary of the YWCA in Swansea, Wales. That led to her work with the South Africa General Mission (SAGM) to found branches of the YWCA in Port Elizabeth, Cape Town, and Johannesburg.
Along with the chairman of the SAGM and a fellow missionary, she toured North America in 1906-1907, after which she was supposed to have returned to South Africa. Instead, in 1907 at age 57, she married Albert Alfred Head, who was the aforementioned chairman of the SAGM. Head, like Bessie, was an evangelical Anglican. He was a wealthy insurance underwriter who had been widowed three years earlier. It seems he was known for his expansive generosity.
Bessie and Albert continued to serve the SAGM as well as the Keswick Convention. The Keswick Convention, still in existence, seeks to equip missionaries for the mission field. It was closely associated with SAGM, which is also still in existence. Through a series of mergers with similar mission societies, it is now known as SIM (“Serving in Mission”). Bessie was a sought-after speaker for both organizations and a prolific contributor of spiritual writings and poems to their publications. After Albert’s death in 1928, she resided at the SAGM house in Wimbledon, London until her death.
A collection of Bessie’s writings, Heavenly Places, & Other Messages, was published in 1920. Likewise, “O breath of life, come sweeping through us” was published with the tune SPIRITUS VITAE in 1920.
Even less is known of the hymn tune’s composer. Mary Jane Hammond was born in England in 1878, and died on January 23, 1964 at Hilligdon Nursing Home, St. Albans, Hertfordshire, England. The tune’s name, SPIRITUS VITAE, translates as “breath of life.” Though her specific reason for naming it such is unknown, it seems an ideal choice, given the hymn text.
“O breath of life, come sweeping through us” is a profound prayer for renewal, and for strength to do the work of the Gospel to build up the Church of God. It is first a prayer for renewal within ourselves. Without the working of the Holy Spirit within us, we cannot sustain our mission … or, more specifically, the Great Commission given us by Jesus before His ascension. It is then a prayer for renewal throughout the Church.
Take your time as you read the hymn. Let the words wash over you and swirl around in your mind. Where in your life is there need for renewal? What aspects of the Church are in greatest need of renewal? Make the hymn your prayer. As you reflect and pray, consider these passages in conjunction with the hymn: Psalm 51:10-12, Romans 12:2, 2 Corinthians 4:16-18 , 2 Corinthians 5:17-20.
A recording of the hymn is available here. It is sung by participants at the Evangelical Movement of Wales Conference, Aberystwyth.
O Breath of Life
O Breath of life, come sweeping through us,
revive your Church with life and pow'r.
O Breath of Life, come, cleanse, renew us,
and fit your Church to meet this hour.
O Wind of God, come bend us, break us,
till humbly we confess our need;
then in your tenderness remake us,
revive, restore, for this we plead.
O Breath of love, come breathe within us,
renewing thought and will and heart;
come, Love of Christ, afresh to win us,
revive your Church in every part.
O Heart of Christ, once broken for us,
'tis there we find our strength and rest;
our broken, contrite hearts now solace,
and let your waiting Church be blest.
Revive us, Lord! Is zeal abating
while harvest fields are vast and white?
Revive us, Lord, the world is waiting,
equip your Church to spread the light.
June 7, 2020
This week, the doors of our church will be open for worship for the first time in three months. Per CDC guidelines, we will not sing as a congregation, but Jane Watson will sing a hymn on our behalf. Because it might be unfamiliar to some, it is the subject of this week’s hymn reflection.
“Come down, O love divine” is a prayer to the Holy Spirit to fill our hearts with the fire of His love. It was written in the 14th century by an Italian monk named Bianco da Siena. He wrote over 100 hymns, but only a few have been translated into English and have come into common usage.
Bianco da Siena (c. 1345-c. 1412) was born in Anciolina, a small hamlet in Tuscany, Italy, but moved to Siena during his early childhood and eventually worked there as a wood carver. It may be of interest to learn that what little is known of Bianco’s life was reconstructed from his poetry. An Italian poet and playwright named Feo Belcari (1410-1484) was responsible for undertaking this work.
At some point, Bianco joined a monastery in Cittè di Castello that housed an order of lay monks called the Gesuati. He is believed to have lived for many years at the monastery. Unknown circumstances then led him to Venice, where he lived out the remainder of his life.
Bianco wrote in a form known as “laude form.” Laude (Latin for praise) was a type of sacred song written in the vernacular. In Bianco’s era, sacred music for use in worship was written in Latin and largely accessible only to clergy and choirs. Laude songs were sung by the common folk outside of formal worship services. These were popular into the 19th century. (“God rest ye, merry gentlemen” is an example of such a song.)
“Come down, O love divine” (Discendi, amor santo) was written in eight stanzas. The English translation in 1857 by Irish scholar and priest Richard Littledale (1833-1890) retains four of those stanzas, one of which is omitted from most hymnals.
While the hymn is a quite moving and inspiring prayer, it did not enjoy widespread popularity until its publication in the English Hymnal (1906), one of the most influential hymnals of the 20th century. The tune paired with it – and which has since become the standard tune for this hymn - was written specifically for it by the famed composer Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958). The tune was called DOWN AMPNEY in honor of Vaughan Williams’ birthplace. Dr. C. Michael Hawn writes that it “carries the majesty and mystery of the text beautifully.”
According to Dr. Hawn, Bianco’s songs can be classified as either doctrinal or mystical, and are inspired by deep religious fervor. “Come down, O love divine” is an example of the latter. Dr. Hawn writes, “The text is intense—intensely personal and intensely passionate. Classic images of Pentecost appear throughout the hymn, especially those that relate to fire. The final stanza is a powerful statement of total commitment to love, to ‘create a place/wherein the Holy Spirit makes a dwelling.’”
The oft-omitted third stanza reads:
Let holy charity
Mine outward vesture be,
And lowliness become mine inner clothing;
True lowliness of heart,
Which takes the humbler part,
And o’er its own shortcomings weeps with loathing.
Listen to the hymn here. It is sung by the congregation of Dunblane Cathedral in Dunblane, Scotland.
Come Down, O Love Divine
Bianco da Siena
1. Come down, O Love divine,
seek thou this soul of mine,
and visit it with thine own ardor glowing;
O Comforter, draw near,
within my heart appear,
and kindle it, thy holy flame bestowing.
2. O let it freely burn,
till earthly passions turn
to dust and ashes in its heat consuming;
and let thy glorious light
shine ever on my sight,
and clothe me round, the while my path illuming.
3. And so the yearning strong,
with which the soul will long,
shall far outpass the power of human telling;
for none can guess its grace,
till Love create a place
wherein the Holy Spirit makes a dwelling.
May 31, 2020
The 50-day Easter season comes to a close with the observance of the Day of Pentecost. If we were meeting for worship in the church today, the hanging over the pulpit and the Bible bookmark would be changed from white to red to signify the fire of the Holy Spirit.
We all know the events of the first Pentecost. The disciples were in Jerusalem for the celebration of a harvest festival called Shavuot. This religious festival was held every year on the 50th day after Passover, and all males were required to attend. The disciples were gathered together “in one place” (Acts 2:1) when the Holy Spirit, in a great gush of wind, descended upon them like tongues of fire. Filled with the Holy Spirit and emboldened with renewed courage, the disciples were invigorated to fulfill the Great Commission commanded by Jesus to spread the Gospel throughout the world. Peter started the ball rolling with a stirring sermon that very day. As recorded in Acts 2:41, this resulted in many converts to the Gospel: “So those who received his word were baptized, and there were added that day about three thousand souls.” Refresh your memory of the event by reading Acts 2 here.
Incidentally, do you know that the word “Pentecost” is from the Greek word meaning “fiftieth”? The day is so named because the events of Holy Spirit’s coming occurred on the 50th day after the resurrection, just as Shavuot – the festival being celebrated on that first Pentecost – is held on the 50th day after Passover.
As a nod to Pentecost, let’s take a look at one of our better-known hymns associated with the gift of the Holy Spirit. “Breathe on me, breath of God” is a moving prayer for the transformation of one’s life. There is an undercurrent of urgency running beneath the text that is pushed along by the steadiness of the hymn tune. The text pleads for the breath of God to “fill me with life anew” until “I am wholly thine.” It begs that the pray-er might be so filled with the breath of God that he “may love what Thou dost love and do what thou wouldst do.” Yes, there is an urgency here that touches the soul and draws us into the depth of this profound prayer.
The hymn was written by an Oxford graduate named Edwin Hatch (1835-1889). After being ordained in the Church of England, he served a congregation in the slums of east London before accepting a teaching post at Trinity College in Quebec, Canada, and later served as rector of Quebec High School. He continued his academic career back in Oxford, where he served as vice-principal of St. Mary’s Hall, and held several positions as a lecturer. His specialties included the history of the early Church.
Much like Charles Wesley’s hymns, this hymn of Edwin Hatch draws deeply upon his knowledge of scripture. We can see reflections of John 20:21-22 (“Jesus said to them again, ‘Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, even, so send I you.’ And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, ‘Receive the Holy Spirit.’”), Genesis 2:7 (“the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.”), and John 3:3-8 (“Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Do not marvel that I said to you, ‘You must be born anew.’”)
Hatch’s academic background waves to us through the hymn’s original Latin title of “Spiritus Dei” (Spirit of God). Recall that in Greek, the word for “spirit” and “breath” is one and the same. Thus, the title, “Spirit of God,” calls to mind the concept of the Holy Spirit being life-giving breath that fills and sustains us.
The hymn’s first publication was private, appearing in a collection by Hatch titled, Between Doubt and Prayer (1878). Its first publication in a hymnal occurred in The Congregational Psalmist (1886). It is the only one of Hatch’s twelve hymns that remains in use.
The tune that we are accustomed to singing with the hymn is called TRENTHAM. It is named for a small village in Staffordshire, England, near the birthplace of the composer, Robert Jackson (1842-1914). He wrote the tune in 1888 for a hymn by Henry W. Baker called, “O Perfect Love of Life.” It was later paired with Hatch’s hymn by a hymnal editor. Jackson was a church organist, composer of hymn tunes, and conductor of two community choirs in Oldham, Lancashire, England.
Two versions of the hymn are offered here for your listening pleasure. The first is a traditional rendition sung by the congregation of Trinity Church, Gosforth (Newcastle upon Tyne, England). The second is a more reflective presentation set to the tune ST. COLUMBA and sung by a solo voice.
Breathe on Me, Breath of God
1. Breathe on me, Breath of God,
fill me with life anew,
that I may love what thou dost love,
and do what thou wouldst do.
2. Breathe on me, Breath of God,
until my heart is pure,
until my will is one with thine,
to do and to endure.
3. Breathe on me, Breath of God,
till I am wholly thine,
until this earthly part of me
glows with thy fire divine.
4. Breathe on me, Breath of God,
so shall I never die,
but live with thee the perfect life
of thine eternity.
May 24, 2020
Well, here we are at the seventh Sunday of the Easter season. Next week, the worldwide Church marks the Day of Pentecost and the start of the disciples’ mission to spread the good news of the Gospel throughout the world. Jesus’ beautiful prayer for His disciples, as recorded at John 17:1-11 (see side bar), is among the scripture passages assigned by lectionaries for the seventh Sunday of Easter. Its placement in the Easter season gives the impression that Jesus prayed it just prior to His ascension, but He actually prayed it after the Last Supper, shortly before He and the disciples left the Upper Room and went to the Garden of Gethsemane. It concludes a series of discourses that begin in John 13. The prayer is sometimes referred to as Jesus’ farewell address. Of this prayer, Richard Neill Donovan wrote, “Jesus’ concern is not so much for the physical danger that his disciples will face … but for spiritual victory in the face of great trials.” (sermonwriter.com)
Another passage assigned for this Sunday is 1 Peter 4:12-14; 5:6-11 (see side bar). The passage encourages the believer to rejoice in suffering and to “cast all your anxiety” on the Lord. Peter was addressing Christians in six Roman provinces, all dealing with various forms of persecution common to first century Christians – insults, false accusations, social ostracism, and violence of all sorts. The purpose of the letter in general was “for the hearers to ‘stand firm’ in faith in the midst of trials and persecutions.” (The Reformation Study Bible). Although our immediate trial – shared with all humanity the world over – is not the same as that of Peter’s first audience, perhaps the text can apply to us in these unusual and difficult days.
Considering that comfort and assurance might be found in both passages, I gave up trying to decide between the two and offer both texts for reflection, along with accompanying hymns.
The passage from John called to mind a hymn that is not often heard. “Thine forever, God of love” was written by Mary Fawler Maude (1819-1913). Mrs. Maude was born in Middlesex, England, and married in 1841 to Joseph Maude, an Anglican priest. Mrs. Maude's hymns were published in her Twelve Letters on Confirmation (1848) and Memorials of Past Years (1852). "Thine forever, God of love" was the best known of her twelve hymns. She wrote it for her girls’ Sunday school class of St. Thomas, Newport, Isle of Wight. The full text and a recording link are provided at the end of this article.
The first hymn that came to mind when reading the passage from 1 Peter was “A mighty fortress is our God.” Martin Luther is believed to have written both the text and tune of this hymn sometime between 1527 and 1528. This occurred quite a few years after the 1517 publication of his 95 Theses, a document that is traditionally regarded as the fuel that propelled the start of the Protestant Reformation. While the document addressed specific concerns regarding the Church’s teachings and practices regarding the subject of penance, it was only the beginning of a massive religious, cultural, and political movement that swept through Europe, seeking to reform many beliefs and practices of medieval Christianity. You can read the list of 95 Theses here, and read about the specific concern the document addressed here.
The first three stanzas of the hymn are based on Psalm 46, while the fourth arose directly from Luther's own experiences of persecution, suffering, and personal tragedy. It became known as the “battle hymn” of the Reformation.
In an article about the hymn, Dr. Albert B. Collver wrote:
“These years were some of the darkest in Luther’s life. A heading from a broadsheet (something akin to modern sheet music) of “A Mighty Fortress” published in Augsburg in 1529 reads, “A Hymn of Comfort.” Rather than a battle hymn, Luther intended this hymn, based on Psalm 46, to be one of comfort. While we are not certain what prompted Luther to write the hymn, scholars have suggested a number of events during these dark years.
“In August 1527, a man who followed Luther’s teaching was martyred. In the fall of 1527, a plague broke out in Wittenberg. In December 1527, Luther wrote to a colleague: ‘We are all in good health except for Luther himself, who is physically well, but outwardly the whole world and inwardly the devil and all his angels are making him suffer.’ A few days later, in January 1528, Luther wrote that he was undergoing a period of temptation that was the worst he had experienced in his life.
“When Luther speaks of ‘temptation’, he uses the German word. While Anfechtung is translated ‘temptation’ or ‘trial’, it refers to anything that causes anxiety, doubt, fear, suffering, or terror in a person’s life. For instance, in December 1527, Luther’s daughter, Elizabeth, was born sickly. In May 1528, she died. The six months of wrestling with the Lord in prayer to save his sick daughter was a period of temptation (Anfechtung) for Luther. He was mentally and spiritually fatigued. He was under the cross of suffering. Yet, he took comfort in the Psalms and trusted in the promises of Jesus.
“In stanza 3, the hymn says, ‘Though devils all the world should fill.’ Luther truly believed he was living in the Last Days because the preaching of the Gospel — that we are justified by grace through faith — and the Scriptures were clearly taught, and controversy after controversy arose. The world seemed full of ‘devils’ perverting the Lord’s teaching.
“The hymn concludes by confessing that the Word of the Lord will remain in the world even if people are not thankful for it. In Luther’s day, there was the very real danger that he could lose his life, all his possessions, his reputation, and his family. Nevertheless, he sings confidently that ‘our victory has been won; the Kingdom ours remaineth.’ Luther’s hymn is one of comfort and hope in the midst of trial and temptation, and strife within the Church.”
The themes of this much-loved hymn apply to all sorts and conditions of persecution and suffering, in all places and times. It has been adopted as an anthem for many causes, and sought out by countless individuals who, as Dr. Collver describes it, seek “comfort in the midst of trial, suffering, and temptation.”
- Read the article in full at https://lutheranreformation.org/history/a-mighty-fortress/. Dr. Collver is Director of Church Relations/Assistant to the President for The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod in St. Louis, Missouri
Listen to “Thine forever, God of love” here. It is sung by the Choir of King’s College. Unfortunately, only three stanzas are included. Read the full text below.
Listen to “A mighty fortress is our God” here. The Choir of King’s College, Cambridge is accompanied by organ, brass, and timpani. Listen for the music to become darker in the third stanza to reflect the text (“And though this world with devils filled”). The text is provided below.
I encourage you to read the scripture passages before listening to the hymns.
Thine for ever, God of Love
Mary Fawler Maude
1. Thine for ever! God of love,
hear us from thy throne above;
thine for ever may we be
here and in eternity.
2. Thine for ever! Lord of life,
shield us through our earthly strife;
thou the Life, the Truth, the Way,
guide us to the realms of day.
3. Thine for ever! O how blest
they who find in thee their rest!
Savior, guardian, heavenly friend,
O defend us to the end.
4. Thine for ever! Shepherd, keep
us thy frail and trembling sheep;
safe alone beneath thy care,
let us all thy goodness share.
5. Thine for ever! Thou our guide,
all our wants by thee supplied,
all our sins by thee forgiven,
lead us, Lord, from earth to heaven.
A Mighty Fortress is Our God
1. A mighty fortress is our God,
a bulwark never failing;
our helper he amid the flood
of mortal ills prevailing.
For still our ancient foe
doth seek to work us woe;
his craft and pow'r are great;
and armed with cruel hate,
on earth is not his equal.
2. Did we in our own strength confide,
our striving would be losing;
were not the right man on our side,
the man of God's own choosing.
Dost ask who that may be?
Christ Jesus, it is he,
Lord Sabaoth his name,
from age to age the same,
and he must win the battle.
3. And though this world, with devils filled,
should threaten to undo us,
we will not fear, for God hath willed
his truth to triumph through us.
The prince of darkness grim,
we tremble not for him;
his rage we can endure,
for lo! his doom is sure;
one little word shall fell him.
4. That Word above all earthly pow'rs,
no thanks to them, abideth;
the Spirit and the gifts are ours
through him who with us sideth.
Let goods and kindred go,
this mortal life also;
the body they may kill:
God's truth abideth still;
his kingdom is forever.
May 17, 2020
We come now to the sixth Sunday of the Easter season. One of the scripture readings assigned by lectionaries for this particular Sunday is 1 John 5:1-9 (see side bar). The hymn I have selected to pair with it is “Stand up, stand up for Jesus.” This hymn draws our attention particularly to verses 4 and 5 of the scripture text. I must admit that the idea of using this hymn initially gave me pause. I was more drawn to “How gentle God’s commands” – a quietly reflective hymn that addresses the first three verses of the scripture passage. The more I thought about it, though, I came to see “Stand up …” not only as a rallying cry for us as God’s children (1 John 5:2), but as a charge to stand strong and faithfully carry on in the face of the warfare that is Covid 19.
More than once, this virus has been compared to an invading army and our response to it as a war. I read an article last week in which the official being interviewed suggested that if there were actual armed soldiers standing outside our doors, we would batten down the hatches and stay inside until they retreated. If we were required to go out and enter into the fray, we would make sure that we were armed to the fullest extent possible. As we do battle with this virus … this surreal onslaught that has turned the world upside down and inside out … it would be easy to slip into the darkness of despair. Instead, as the hymn says, we must “put on the Gospel armor” as we continue to rejoice that “Christ is Lord indeed,” always remembering that the “strife will not be long” and, most importantly, that our strength and hope is in Christ. The passage from 1 John reminds us, “For everyone who has been born of God overcomes the world. And this is the victory that has overcome the world – our faith.”
As you listen to the hymn and follow the text (see below), try thinking of the words in terms of the pandemic and what our faith-filled response to it might be. If you are struggling in mind and spirit, can you find encouragement and direction in the hymn’s words?
Before listening, please read on to discover a little bit about the hymn’s background. There is a Presbyterian connection, and the situation that inspired the hymn is worth the read.
The following is taken from The Psalter Hymnal Handbook.
"George Duffield, Jr. (b. Carlisle, PA, 1818; d. Bloomfield, NJ, 1888), was inspired to write this text after hearing the dying words of a Presbyterian colleague, Dudley A. Tyng. Ousted from his own congregation for his strong anti-slavery stance, Tyng preached to large crowds in weekday meetings sponsored by the YMCA. His work spearheaded an evangelical revival in Philadelphia early in 1858. At Tyng's deathbed, caused by a farm accident in which he lost an arm, Duffield and others asked if he had any final message. Tyng replied, 'Tell them to stand up for Jesus!’ At Tyng's memorial service on April 25, 1858, Duffield preached on Ephesians 6:14 and concluded his sermon by reading his new hymn text, "Stand up, stand up for Jesus." Several lines in that original text referred to Tyng's words and ministry. The six-stanza text was first distributed in leaflet form and then was published in The Church Psalmist (1859). … Most hymnals include the original stanzas 1, 3, 4, and 6 with updated language.
"The challenge of "Stand up for Jesus" is proclaimed through the military metaphors Paul uses in Ephesians 6:10-18. Although some decry the warlike imagery, the spiritual battle that Christians must fight is very real. Christ's victory is assured even if we do not always move "from victory unto victory" in our earthly lives.
"A graduate of Yale College and Union Theological Seminary, Duffield served eight Presbyterian churches in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Michigan. He was a regent for the University of Michigan for seven years, served as editor of the Presbyterian paper Christian Observer, and promoted evangelistic work with his personal wealth. Duffield's interest in hymnody influenced his son, Samuel W. Duffield, to publish English Hymns, Their Authors and History (1886).
"George J. Webb (b. Rushmore Lodge, near Salisbury, Wiltshire, England, 1803; d. Orange, NJ, 1887) composed the tune webb (also known as morning light) on a voyage from England to the United States. The tune was published in The Odeon, a collection of secular music compiled by Webb and Lowell Mason in 1837. There it was set to "'Tis Dawn, the Lark Is Singing." [The tune] was used as a hymn tune in The Wesleyan Psalmist (1842), where it was the setting for "The Morning Light Is Breaking" (thus its other title).
"William B. Bradbury paired webb to Duffield's text, an association that appeared in many of Ira D. Sankey's hymnals. Hymnologist Stanley L. Osborne says that this tune "goes with a roar."
"Although his parents had intended that he become a minister, Webb's early skills in music soon pointed toward a career in music. He studied organ at Salisbury Cathedral and became organist in a church in Falmouth. In 1830, he immigrated to the United States, settled in Boston, and became organist in the Old South Church, a position he held for the next forty years. In his later years, Webb taught singing in Orange, New Jersey, and New York City and published two books on voice pedagogy. Working with Lowell Mason on a number of projects, including the publishing of The National Psalmist (1848), Webb also taught music at Mason's Boston Academy of Music and was president of the Handel and Haydn Society. In 1835, Webb joined the Swedenborgian Church and was influential in shaping its musical service book of 1836 as well as the book's revisions in 1854 and 1876. He also edited other songbooks such as The Massachusetts Collection of Psalmody (1840), The Psaltery (1845), The Melodist (1850), and Cantica Ecclesiastica (1859)."
Click here to listen to the hymn. It is sung by the choir and congregation of First United Methodist Church, Downtown, Houston, Texas.
Stand Up, Stand Up for Jesus
George Duffield, Jr.
1. Stand up, stand up for Jesus,
ye soldiers of the cross;
lift high his royal banner,
it must not suffer loss:
from vict'ry unto vict'ry
his army he shall lead,
till ev'ry foe is vanquished
and Christ is Lord indeed.
2. Stand up, stand up for Jesus,
the trumpet call obey;
forth to the mighty conflict
in this his glorious day:
ye that are men now serve him
against unnumbered foes;
let courage rise with danger,
and strength to strength oppose.
3. Stand up, stand up for Jesus,
stand in his strength alone;
the arm of flesh will fail you,
ye dare not trust your own:
put on the gospel armor,
each piece put on with pray'r;
where duty calls, or danger,
be never wanting there.
4. Stand up, stand up for Jesus,
the strife will not be long;
this day the noise of battle,
the next the victor's song:
to him that overcometh
a crown of life shall be;
he with the King of glory
shall reign eternally.
May 10, 2020
May 10 brings us to the fifth Sunday in the season of Easter. From the several scripture passages assigned to this particular Sunday, the one selected as a basis for this week’s hymn reflection is 1 John 4:7-21 (see sidebar). In this exposition on the topic of God’s everlasting love and the responsibilities of those who live in that love, we are reminded both of the incomprehensible gift that is ours through Christ’s death and resurrection, and of God’s abiding love for us and within us. Perhaps this assurance is one more truth to sustain us during these days of uncertainty.
It is in this context that we look at “What wondrous love is this, O my soul.” Before reflecting upon the hymn’s text, let us first take a quick look at its history. After all, it does have a connection to South Carolina.
The origin of the hymn is unknown, but it is believed to have risen out of oral tradition and to have been passed down through the generations from perhaps the 1600s. Through the work of scholars and Appalachian folksong collectors, its first appearance in print was discovered to have been in 1811 in a collection titled, General Selection of the Newest and Most Admired Hymns and Spiritual Songs Now in Use. Most likely, it had been transcribed by a folksong collector who visited the hills of Appalachia. He would have then submitted it for publication in a hymnal or songbook.
The tune, also anonymous, first appeared in the 1840 edition of The Southern Harmony and Musical Companion, which was compiled by a South Carolinian named William Walker. Walker, who was nicknamed “Singing Billy,” was born in Martin Mills in 1807 and grew up near Spartanburg. Walker’s The Southern Harmony was a highly influential publication in this era of Shape Note singing. Shape Note is a system of music notation that indicates pitch by a variety of shapes instead of standard music notation. It was the teaching method used in the singing schools that were a popular social activity across the country in the 18th century, and that are still active in some regions. Though the singing style is associated with Appalachia, it began in England in the 17th century as a way to teach church congregations to sing, and then made its way across the Atlantic Ocean to New England. There it grew into a much-loved secular pastime and then migrated to southern states. William Walker’s songbooks are integral to this singing style, and continue to be used in today’s singing schools and Shape Note conventions. His The Southern Harmony is said to have put “What wondrous love is this” “on the lips of many singers in the antebellum south.” (If you would like to learn more about Shape Note singing, read the article that appears here.)
The opening lines of “What wondrous love …” are a prayer in themselves. Three repetitions of the phrase “What wondrous love is this, O my soul” calls upon us to deeply ponder the inexpressible magnitude of God’s gift of His Son, and of the depth of love that such a gift represents. In an article about the hymn, Dr. C. Michael Hawn wrote: “This repetition is not the sign of a weak poet who has a narrow range of expression, but a fellow traveler who has experienced profoundly the sacrificial love of Christ and can only express again and again – ‘What wondrous love is this’ … These are not the carefully crafted words of a theologian, but utterances directly from the heart or, even more profoundly, from the soul.” 1
It is akin to the refrain of “And can it be that I should gain”: "Amazing love! How can it be that thou, my God, shouldst die for me?" We sing those words over and over throughout the hymn, voicing the awe that Charles Wesley expressed when he penned the text … an awe that we, perhaps, share with him.
The first stanza continues: What wondrous love is this that caused the Lord of bliss to bear the dreadful curse for my soul.
Based on our understanding that through His death Christ paid the ransom for the sins of all humanity, the phrase “dreadful curse” might reference the corruption of humankind. Some scholars tweak that interpretation ever so slightly, suggesting that it is a reference to original sin. As such, it calls to mind the idea of Jesus being the “Second Adam” who redeemed us from the first Adam’s fall.
Note the repetition that occurs at the end of this and every stanza. These recurring statements of wonder, prayer, and gratitude urgently plead with us to ponder the truth within the words. In this stanza, the repetition is “for my soul.” Think upon this, placing emphasis on the word my. See how doing so shapes this statement for you.
An original second stanza that does not appear in our hymnal speaks with strong imagery to the misery of our sinfulness, and then to the immensity of God’s love, grace, and mercy:
When I was sinking down . . .
beneath God's righteous frown,
Christ laid aside his crown for my soul.
The next two stanzas practically shout the boundless joy and gratitude with which we expect to raise our voices with all God’s people in one unending song of praise for all eternity. Can you hear shades of Revelation 5 in these words?
To God and to the Lamb,
who is the great I AM,
while millions join the theme, I will sing
Can you imagine knowing so completely of God’s sure and certain love for you, that you are able to lift heart and voice without any hint of doubt to fully proclaim such wondrous love?
It would be remiss to omit the fact that hymns from the earliest days of American history often employed repetition. Hymnals were rare commodities brought from settlers' homelands. New hymns and songs, such as "What wondrous love," were developed through oral tradition. By necessity, they were dependant upon repetitive texts in order to be easily taught and remembered. Let’s not allow that fact to detract from the yearning that is evident in this hymn. It is not so much a teaching hymn as it is a profound (1) prayer for mercy, (2) prayer of thanksgiving, (3) exclamation of rejoicing, and (4) expression of faith. Are not our most intense prayers composed of few words? Cannot the same be said of our deepest rejoicing?
Listen to the hymn here. It is sung by the Furman Singers Alumni Choir. The setting is by Robert Shaw and Alice Parker. Listen to how the arrangement attempts to create the idea of “millions join the theme” in the last two stanzas.
1 Dr. C. Michael Hawn is Distinguished Professor of Church Music at Perkins School of Theology. He is also director of the seminary's sacred music program.
What Wondrous Love Is This
1. What wondrous love is this, O my soul, O my soul,
what wondrous love is this, O my soul!
What wondrous love is this that caused the Lord of bliss
to bear the dreadful curse for my soul, for my soul,
to bear the dreadful curse for my soul!
2. When I was sinking down, sinking down, sinking down,
when I was sinking down, sinking down;
when I was sinking down beneath God's righteous frown,
Christ laid aside his crown for my soul, for my soul,
Christ laid aside his crown for my soul!
3. To God and to the Lamb, I will sing, I will sing,
to God and to the Lamb, I will sing;
to God and to the Lamb, who is the great I AM,
while millions join the theme, I will sing, I will sing,
while millions join the theme, I will sing!
4. And when from death I'm free, I'll sing on, I'll sing on,
and when from death I'm free, I'll sing on;
and when from death I'm free, I'll sing and joyful be,
and through eternity I'll sing on, I'll sing on,
and through eternity I'll sing on!
May 3, 2020
Just as one day slips into the next, the Church calendar rolls along and brings us now to the fourth Sunday of the Easter season. Among the scripture readings appointed by lectionaries for this day is Psalm 23, a portion of scripture that God’s people turn to time and again for comfort and assurance in days of difficulty or uncertainty.
One of the many hymns based upon this psalm is “The King of Love My Shepherd Is.” For many Christians, it is the best-loved of all those based on Psalm 23. It was written by Henry William Baker in 1868 as a paraphrase that merges the words of the psalm with teachings from the New Testament. This is a technique that was pioneered in the 17th century by Isaac Watts (“Joy to the World,” “Jesus Shall Reign Where’er the Sun,” “When I Survey the Wondrous Cross”).
In the first stanza, the connection is quite subtle. Baker points to the eternal relationship between Shepherd and sheep as addressed by Jesus at John 10:28.
Subtlety is also his approach in the second stanza. By using the phrase “streams of living water” instead of David’s “still waters,” Baker recalls for us Jesus’ statement that He is the source of living water (John 4:14 and John 7:37-39).
The third stanza is based on the parable of the lost sheep (Luke 15:3-7), and in the fourth, the phrase “thy cross before to guide me” identifies the shepherd as Jesus.
Baker completes the merger with the use of “cross” in the fourth stanza; the word “chalice” in the fifth to transform the table of Psalm 23 into the table of the Lord’s Supper; and, finally, the application of the title of “Good Shepherd” in the last (John 10:11; 14-15). In this concluding stanza, we are sustained by the reminder of our Shepherd’s unfailing goodness.
In a reflection on Psalm 23, Dr. Rolf Jacobson, professor of Old Testament at Luther Seminary, wrote of the psalm: “The promise to the ancient psalmist was simple. ‘I am with you.’ In response, the psalmist confesses, ‘I fear no evil, for you are with me.’ I may be surrounded by enemies, but ‘you prepare a table for me in the presence of my enemies.’ … The God who drew near to us in Emmanuel is with us still. In spite of our lack of trust and our failure to follow, Jesus has promised, ‘I am with you always, to the end of the age.’” (Matthew 28:20). Henry W. Baker’s merger of Old Testament and New in “The King of Love My Shepherd Is” encourages us to this same conclusion.
Henry William Baker earned his place in the history of Christian hymnody by his work as editor-in-chief of the most authoritative hymnal in the hymnology archives. Published in 1861, Hymns Ancient and Modern was the first compilation of the body of repertoire of Christian hymnody. It was also the first time that a hymn book included the setting of each hymn to its proper tune. It organized hymns according to proper usage throughout the Church year, as well as to specific scripture texts and topics. In its first year of publication, it sold more than 35,000 copies – an impressive number in 1861! Together with subsequent editions, it has sold more than 200 million copies in its 159- year history.
"The King of Love my Shepherd Is” is in our hymnal, set to the tune Dominus Regit Me. Because the tune is unfamiliar to our congregation, we have been singing it to the tune called St. Columba. This tune is named for the Irish saint who “carried the torch of Irish Christianity to Scotland in the sixth century.” It was one of several Irish melodies collected by George Petrie (1789-1866) and subsequently published in Complete Collection of Irish Music as noted by George Petrie in 1902. The renowned composer Ralph Vaughan Williams made subtle revisions to the tune before pairing it with Baker’s hymn in 1906.
Listen to a recording of the hymn here. It is sung by the Cardiff Festival Choir (Wales). The text is printed below.
The King of Love My Shepherd Is
Henry William Baker
1. The King of love my Shepherd is,
whose goodness faileth never;
I nothing lack if I am his
and he is mine forever.
2. Where streams of living water flow
my ransomed soul he leadeth,
and where the verdant pastures grow,
with food celestial feedeth.
3. Perverse and foolish oft I strayed,
but yet in love he sought me,
and on his shoulder gently laid,
and home, rejoicing, brought me.
4. In death's dark vale I fear no ill
with thee, dear Lord, beside me;
thy rod and staff my comfort still,
thy cross before to guide me.
5. Thou spread'st a table in my sight;
thine unction grace bestoweth;
and O what transport of delight
from thy pure chalice floweth.
6. And so through all the length of days
thy goodness faileth never:
Good Shepherd, may I sing thy praise
within thy house forever.
April 26, 2020
On the Church calendar, April 26 is the third Sunday of the seven-week Easter season. One of the scripture readings assigned for the day is Luke 24:36-48 (see sidebar), which tells of one of Jesus’ post-Resurrection appearances to His disciples. As you might imagine, any number of Easter hymns would support this text, several of which focus specifically upon the event it describes. Instead, we will look this week at “God Moves in a Mysterious Way,” a hymn that draws attention in a broader scope to the theme of believing without seeing. It is a hymn that has been quoted often throughout the past six weeks. When one learns the author’s story, the ability to connect with the text might grow even stronger.
The Rev. Jeff Robinson provides this hymn reflection by way of an article that he wrote on April 24, 2015. It eloquently connects the despair that William Cowper endured throughout his life with the hymn’s text and the application of both to our lives.
An audio clip of the hymn can be found here.
GOD MOVES IN A MYSTERIOUS WAY
“God Moves in a Mysterious Way”
William Cowper, 1774
1. God moves in a mysterious way,
his wonders to perform;
he plants his footsteps in the sea,
and rides upon the storm.
2. Deep in unfathomable mines,
of never-failing skill;
he fashions up his bright designs,
and works his sovereign will.
3. Ye fearful saints fresh courage take,
the clouds that you much dread,
are big with mercy and will break
in blessings on your head.
4. Judge not the Lord by feeble sense,
but trust him for his grace;
behind a frowning providence,
he hides a smiling face.
5. His purposes will ripen fast,
unfolding every hour;
the bud may have a bitter taste,
but sweet will be the flower.
6. Blind unbelief is sure to err,
and scan his work in vain;
God is his own interpreter,
and he will make it plain.
I love this hymn for the same reason I love Romans 8 and country music. I’m not talking about modern-day country music, the kind that is slick and well-packaged, the sort that is merely countrified pop music. By country music, I mean Hank (Senior), Cash, Jones, the Hag. Legends, all, whose lives were marked by the profound suffering and searching of which they sang. They were not dime store cowboys and neither was the author of “God Moves in a Mysterious Way.” In some ways, the British poet William Cowper is to classic, Reformation-tradition hymnody what Hank Williams was to country music: both men perennially suffered deep, dark depression and anguish of soul. Out of their pain, each man wrote deeply emotional, heart-felt poetry that was set to music. Of course, their biographies part ways there: both diagnosed the illness that drove their angst in a deeply fallen world, but only Cowper found the transformative cure, locating his healing balm in the old rugged cross. Sadly, Hank sought solace in the bottom of a whiskey bottle and died of an overdose of alcohol and pain killers at 29. Hank sang “I Saw the Light,” but never seems to have run to it.
Two bruised reeds, two smoking flaxes, two different outcomes, but two men who were unsentimental about the mysteries of life and God’s providence east of Eden. “God Moves” is my favorite for two fundamental reasons: the story of the man behind the lyrics and the robust theology of Romans 8 that it expresses in unforgettable poetry. Every time I sing it in corporate or family worship (and I love the revised tune by Bob Kauflin and our friends at Sovereign Grace Music), I think of its author, and I am strengthened by the grace of which it speaks.
John Calvin referred to fallen humanity and the world in which we live as broken actors performing on a broken down stage. Cowper’s brokenness was as profound as it was palpable. In his excellent biographical essay on the life of William Cowper, John Piper wrote of him, “The battles in this man’s soul were of epic proportions.” Indeed.
Cowper lived from 1731 to 1800, a contemporary to John Wesley and George Whitefield in England and Jonathan Edwards in America. Heartache was his handmaiden virtually from birth. William and his brother John were the only two among seven siblings to survive past infancy. At age 6, his mother died giving birth to John, leaving William deeply distraught. Cowper moved from school to school before landing at Westminster school in 1742 where he was bullied mercilessly by older students. While studying for a career in law as a young adult, he fell in love with his cousin Theodora and sought her hand in marriage. Her father refused to consent to the union and nuptials were never exchanged. Lost love left him crestfallen.
As he progressed into adulthood, things grew appreciably worse. In 1763, he was offered a position as a clerk of journals in the House of Lords, but the specter of the job examination sent him off the rails; he experienced grinding depression that bordered on insanity. Three times he attempted suicide and was sent to an asylum for recovery. The asylum turned out to be a place of grace for Cowper. Dr. Nathaniel Cotton, an evangelical believer, cared for Cowper and showed him the love of Christ. One day at the hospital, Cowper found a Bible and opened it. The pages fell upon Romans 3:25. God opened Cowper’s blind spiritual eyes that day, and he was converted to a saving hope in Jesus Christ. Salvation changed his heart, but not his propensity for melancholy.
In 1767, two years after leaving the asylum, Cowper met the slave-trader-turned-preacher John Newton, author of “Amazing Grace” and curate of the church at Olney. Newton mentored Cowper. He encouraged Cowper and ministered to him. There were numerous additional suicide attempts as the viper of melancholy gripped the poet every ten years, usually every tenth January. Cowper wrote “God Moves” in 1773 at the behest of Newton, who later published it in the Olney Hymnal. Soon after Cowper wrote “God Moves,” the darkness returned, and he attempted suicide by drowning. He died on April 25, 1800, in the throes of depression. The final poem he composed in 1799 was titled “The Castaway,” but by God’s grace that did not describe his eternal state.
Hymn for Rough Weather
Cowper’s story makes this hymn all the more remarkable. Life between the times is full of hurt and pain; we live in what John Bunyan aptly called a vail of tears. Relationships sour. Malignant tumors grow inside our frail bodies. A phone call shatters our dreams. The spring flowers die, and our lush summer lawns turn brown in winter. The only thing consistent in this embittered cosmos is that nothing stays the same. Cowper lived in and wrote out of this reality as much as any figure in church history. “God Moves” was originally titled “Conflict: Light Shining out of Darkness.” Cowper knew first-hand that life is warfare.
This hymn is my favorite for the same reason Romans 8:28-39 is my favorite Bible passage. The final four of the six stanzas are pure gold for suffering saints—that’s all of us on various levels—on pilgrimage through the valley of the shadow of death: “You fearful saints, fresh courage take, the clouds that you now dread, are big with mercy and will break in blessings on your head.” The world is groaning, we are groaning, but God is protecting us, forging our faith on the anvil of affliction because of his love for us and because of a passion for his own glory. Charles Spurgeon once said that God’s sovereignty is a doctrine for rough weather; “God Moves” is a hymn for stormy days, and there are many such days in a fallen world.
Behind a Frowning Providence
The fourth stanza is the best-known: “Judge not the Lord by feeble sense, but trust him for his grace; behind a frowning providence, he hides a smiling face.” It is easy to hear echoes of Isaiah 55 here: “My ways are higher than your ways, my thoughts than your thoughts.” We are not omniscient. We have a limited ability to exegete our experiences. We face moments when the God who has declared himself good won’t seem so good. Life may seem bad, sometimes, very bad. But we do not find peace in our ability to interpret events but in the God who is righteous in all his ways and kind in all his works (Ps. 145:17). The fifth verse is a healing balm: “His purposes will ripen fast, unfolding every hour; the bud may have a bitter taste, but sweet will be the flower.”
Cowper concludes the hymn with a reminder for forgetful Christians like me, a reminder I need to hear hourly: “Blind unbelief is sure to err, and scan his work in vain. God is his own interpreter, and he will make it plain.” We don’t know the future. We don’t often understand his ways. But we can trust him because he is never late and never gets the wrong address.
I have never suffered anywhere near the level of William Cowper, but I am grateful that he has set to verse the theology that describes his thorny life so that we might be encouraged and equipped for the fight. Cowper may have spent much time in darkness, but he truly saw the light.
*Jeff Robinson (PhD, The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary) is a senior editor for The Gospel Coalition. A native of Blairsville, Georgia, he also pastors Christ Fellowship Church in Louisville, Kentucky, and serves as senior research and teaching associate for the Andrew Fuller Center for Baptist Studies and adjunct professor of church history at Southern Seminary. Prior to entering ministry, he spent nearly 20 years as a newspaper journalist in Georgia, North Carolina, and Kentucky. He is co-author To the Ends of the Earth: Calvin’s Mission Vision and Legacy and co-editor of 15 Things Seminary Couldn’t Teach Me (Crossway, 2018). Jeff and his wife, Lisa, have four children.
April 19, 2020
On this year's Church calendar, April 19 is the second Sunday in the seven-week long Easter season. Of the scripture readings assigned to that day, one speaks not only to the resurrection but perhaps also to the uncertainty and trials through which we are passing right now. That passage is 1 Peter 1:3-9 (see sidebar).
The hymn "My Jesus, I Love Thee" supports themes that are woven throughout this passage. In an article about the hymn, Dr. C. Michael Hawn presents a brief look at its history and draws attention to some of its themes. After reading about the hymn and considering it in light of 1 Peter 1:3-9, listen to an audio recording of it here.
The recording also includes "It is Well with My Soul," a hymn that seems particularly appropriate now. Readers will recall that Horatio Spafford wrote the hymn in response to the tragic death at sea of his wife and daughters.
MY JESUS, I LOVE THEE
C. Michael Hawn
"My Jesus, I Love Thee"
William R. Featherstone, 1864
1. My Jesus, I love thee, I know thou art mine;
For thee all the follies of sin I resign.
My gracious Redeemer, my Savior art thou;
If ever I loved thee, my Jesus, ’tis now.
2. I love thee because thou hast first loved me,
and purchased my pardon on Calvary's tree.
I love thee for wearing the thorns on thy brow;
if ever I loved thee, my Jesus, 'tis now.
3. I'll love thee in life, I will love thee in death;
and praise thee as long as thou lendest me breath;
and say, when the death-dew lies cold on my brow:
if ever I loved thee, my Jesus, 'tis now.
4. In mansions of glory and endless delight,
I'll ever adore thee in heaven so bright;
I'll sing with the glittering crown on my brow:
if ever I loved thee, my Jesus, 'tis now.
"The text of this favorite hymn ... was likely written at the conversion of author William Ralph Featherstone (1846-1873) when he was a teenager. The simplicity and sincerity of the text has resonated with Christians for well over 150 years, particularly as a hymn of invitation or a prayer hymn.
"Featherstone (sometimes spelled “Featherston”) was born in Montreal, Quebec, Canada where his parents were members of the Wesleyan Methodist Church. The Rev. Carlton Young, editor of the United Methodist Hymnal, suggests that the hymn was composed sometime between the author’s conversion in 1858 and when it was included in The London Hymn Book (1864). Little else is known of Featherstone.
"Stanzas two, three, and four of the original hymn each include a reference to “brow” as a unifying theme: “wearing thorns on thy brow” (stanza two), “deathdew lies cold on my brow” (stanza three), and “glittering crown on my brow” (stanza four).
"The other unifying theme is the final line of each stanza: “If ever I loved Thee, my Jesus, ’tis now.” This focus on the singer’s love of Christ permeates the hymn from the first line. [Throughout the hymn], the words “love” or “loved” appear 10 times.
"Other expressions of affection include “gracious Redeemer” (stanza one) and “ever adore thee” (stanza four). Like many hymns of this era, this one expresses total devotion to Christ in a language of intimacy.
"Composer Adoniram Judson Gordon (1836-1895) — named for the pioneering Baptist missionary Adoniram Judson (1788-1850) who served in India and Burma — discovered the anonymous hymn in the 1870 edition of The London Hymnal. Gordon, a graduate of Newton Theological Seminary (now Andover Newton), included the text with his tune in The Service of Song for Baptist Churches (1876), edited by Gordon and S.L. Caldwell. The pairing of text and tune has become standard to this day." *
Dr. C. Michael Hawn is professor of sacred music at Perkins School of Theology, SMU.
This article appears at https://www.umcdiscipleship.org.
* When Featherstone’s hymn was published anonymously in 1870, it was paired with a now forgotten tune. Upon discovering it, Adoniram Judson Gordon was inspired to compose a new tune. When he published the hymn with his tune in 1876, it was again done so anonymously. It wasn’t until around 1930 that research established Featherstone as the author. - www.hymnary.org
It is Well with My Soul
Horatio Spafford (1873)
1. When peace like a river attendeth my way,
when sorrows like sea billows roll;
whatever my lot, thou hast taught me to say,
"It is well, it is well with my soul."
It is well with my soul;
it is well, it is well with my soul.
2. Though Satan should buffet, though trials should come,
let this blest assurance control:
that Christ has regarded my helpless estate,
and has shed his own blood for my soul. (refrain)
3. My sin oh, the bliss of this glorious thought!
my sin, not in part, but the whole,
is nailed to the cross, and I bear it no more;
praise the Lord, praise the Lord, O my soul! (refrain)
4. O Lord, haste the day when my faith shall be sight,
the clouds be rolled back as a scroll;
the trump shall resound and the Lord shall descend;
even so, it is well with my soul. (refrain)